The German immigrant society had purchased the Fisher-Miller grant of 3.88 million hectares, which was to be measured in the autumn of 1847, otherwise it would expire. What the immigrants did not know was that the Comanches, the most feared tribe, claimed this area as their hunting ground. Making peace with the Comanches became the responsibility of John O. Meusebach, the 33-year-old general commissioner of the immigrant group. Walking down Main Street today, visitors will find an abundance of antique shops, art galleries, and beer gardens serving authentic German cuisine. The city`s rich history is still dense here – the Pioneer Museum offers a glimpse into the lives of early German settlers; a replica of the Association Church, one of the city`s first buildings, houses archives and a collection of Gillespie County history; and St. Mary Parish, which dates back to 1846, offers a lasting reminder of Fredericksburg`s early days. And finally, both sides agree to make every effort to maintain and even strengthen peace and friendship between the German and Comanche peoples and all other settlers, and always and forever walk on the white path. I.
The German people and settlers for the grant between the waters of the Llano and San Saba can visit any part of this land and are protected by the Comanche nation and its chiefs, in consideration of which the Comanches can also come to German cities and colonies. and will have no reason to be afraid, but will go wherever they want – unless our grandfather`s special agent tells otherwise – and will have protection as long as they walk the white path. The Meusebach-Comanche Treaty was a treaty signed on 9 September. It was concluded in 1847 between the private citizens of the Fisher-Miller Land Grant in Texas (USA), who were mainly of German nationality, and the Penateka Comanche tribe.  The treaty was officially recognized by the U.S. government. In 1936, a registered Texas historic landmark, marker number 991, was placed in San Saba County to commemorate the signing of the treaty.  It is important to note that the Comanches did not lose any land rights in the treaty. The agreement is not a peace treaty at all. On the contrary, the Germans agreed to pay tribute to the Comanches for the safe use of Comanche lands. In late January 1847 Meusebach went north with a small group of surveyors from Fredericksburg to the land allocation.
In an initial meeting with Chief Ketemoczy of the Penetaka Comanches and other chiefs, Meusebach explained his good intentions and said he represented the cities that would host them. In return, he awaited the hospitality of his Comanche neighbors. Meusebach was in charge of the affairs of German immigrants. Under Meusebach`s leadership and with the help of Indian agent Robert Neighbors, regular expeditions to Indian-controlled countries took place to investigate both the lands the company wanted to colonize and to find and negotiate with the Penateka Comanches. Perhaps one of the reasons the peace treaty was maintained in 1847 was Meusebach`s attitude toward the Penatekas. During the negotiations, he told them, ”My brother talks about a barrier between red men and pale faces. I don`t despise my red brothers because their skin is darker, and I don`t think about whites anymore because their complexion is lighter. In the spring of 1847, on the banks of the San Saba River in hill country north of Fredericksburg, Texas, a remarkable treaty was negotiated between German settlers and Native Americans. The unlikely parties to the long-running agreement, which would eventually open nearly four million acres for settlement, were a former German baron and representatives of the wild Penateka Comanche tribe. To solve the problems of political unrest and overpopulation that Germany faced in the mid-nineteenth century by advocating immigration to the Republic of Texas, an organization of German nobles known as the Society for the Protection of German Immigrants bought a large piece of land in Texas. The land in question was part of the Fisher-Miller land grant, which stretched between the Llano and San Saba rivers. Unfortunately, the company bought the land with little knowledge of the Texas border and fell victim to an unsavory businessman, Henry Francis Fisher.
Fisher knew full well that the land in question was inhabited by far too many warrior Comanches to be fit for colonization. The Comanches and their great leaders granted Mr. Meusebach, his successors, and the electors the privilege of monitoring the country up to the Concho and even higher, if he deemed it right for Colorado and agreed not to disturb or harass men who may have already been mounted or needed to be sent for that purpose. In view of this, the Commissioner-General, Mr. Meusebach, will give them gifts of a thousand dollars which, together with the necessary provisions to give to the Comanches during their stay in Fredericksburgh, will be about two thousand dollars or more. The contract was signed between powerful chefs Buffalo Hump, Santa Anna, Old Owl for the Penateka Comanches and Meusebach for the company. Meusebach was called ”El Sol Colorado” by the Penateka Comanches. (The name comes from his long flared red beard). The treaty was ratified at Fredericksburg two months later.
The terms of the treaty allowed the settlers of Meusebach to go to the Comanches safe and sound, and the Comanches of Penateka to go to the white colonies. She also promised mutual reporting of wrongdoing and promised that both sides would limit their violations of the law. It also provided for a survey of the lands in the San Saba area with a payment of at least $1,000 to the Indians. Along the way, the group was approached by several English-speaking Shawnee, and Meusebach hired three as hunters.  Reddish blonde John O. Meusebach was named El Sol Colorado (The Red Sun) by Comanche chief Penateka Ketemoczy (Katemcy), who met Meusebach and his group near present-day Mason.    On February 18, they visited an ancient Spanish fortress on the San Saba River to determine the viability of a settlement. It was a region that was said to be rich in silver deposits.
In the ruins of presidio San Sabá, they found engraved names of earlier mining speculators, including those of Jim Bowie, who had been there in 1829. According to their agreement with Chief Ketemoczy, they returned to the Comanche camp at the next full moon and began on July 1 and 2. March 1847 with negotiations.  The Fisher-Miller land grant consisted of 3,878,000 acres (approximately 15,700 km²) between the Llano River and the Colorado River, in the heart of the Comancheria. This land was part of the hunting grounds of the Penateka Comanche Indians. When Henry Francis Fisher and Burchard Miller sold the stock exchange to the aristocratic association, they were aware of the dangers of settling in the Comancherie, but did not inform the association. Similarly, the club accepted the sale literally and did not question it.  The treaty allowed settlers to travel freely between the Llano and San Saba rivers. Similarly, the Comanches could come to the settlers` cities without fear.
The Comanches promised to tell the settlers if any enemy tribes were near the colony, and the Germans vowed to help the Comanches against their enemies. For the approval of surveyors and settlers, the Comanches received $3,000 in supplies and gifts, according to Irene Marshal King, author of ”John O. Meusebach: German Colonizer in Texas.” By the early eighteenth century, Comanche bands had immigrated to what is now North Texas. In 1706, Spanish authorities in New Mexico documented the presence of numerous Comanches on the northeastern border of that province. As the Comanches moved south, they came into conflict with the tribes already living in the southern plains, especially the Apaches who had ruled the area before the comanche arrived. The Apaches were pushed south by the Comanche assault and became their mortal enemies. The first documented record of Comanches in Texas occurred in 1743, when a small gang, probably a group of scouts, appeared in the Spanish colony of San Antonio to search for their enemies, the Lipan Apaches. There was no hostility, but it was obvious that the Comanches believed that the Spaniards and Apaches were allies. .